- Co-testing for cervical cancer using both cytology test and human papillomavirus (HPV) test.
- Improves sensitivity for CIN2+ in women 30 year of age and older (less likely to miss an abnormality).
- Better management with referral colposcopy.
- Today co-testing in women ages 30 to 65 is the preferred screening strategy recommended by most medical societies, including the American Cancer Society (ACS), American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AGOG), and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), as well as HOGI (Himpunan Onkologi Ginekologi Indonesia).
- Walboomers JM et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999 Sep; 189(1):12-9
- Bosch FX et al. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J clin Pathol. 2002 Apr; 55(4):244-65
- Munoz N et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Feb 6; 348(6):518-27
- Lydia S. Murdiyarso et al. Single and multiple high-risk and low-risk Human Papillomavirus association with cervical lesions of 11,224 women in Jakarta. Springer International, 2016